“Regardless of the angle from which you want to assess the prospects of such an agreement, it is clear that it would benefit Turkey,” said Hasan Vergil, professor of economics at Istanbul University. “Over the next 18 years, Turkey`s industrial and technological base expanded considerably. As a result, several sectors of the Turkish economy could now benefit from a bilateral trade agreement with the United States,” said Matthew Bryza, a former senior U.S. diplomat who was also assistant secretary of state for Europe and Eurasia. Like Graham, economists believe that a free trade agreement could work for the interests of both countries. The Turkey-EU customs union has eliminated tariffs, quantitative restrictions and measures of equivalent effect in trade in industrial products to ensure the free movement of goods. As a result of the customs union, Turkey has opened its internal market to competition in the EU and third countries, while guaranteeing its exporters free access to the EU market. In addition, Turkey is committed to adapting to the preferential regimes that the EU applies to third countries and to harmonising its legislation with the EU acquis in a wide range of areas, including technical standards and regulations, as well as competition policy. However, agricultural trade is carried out between the contracting parties under the preferential system; trade in steel products is governed by the free trade agreement between Turkey and the European Coal and Steel Community.
This page lists the free trade agreements signed by Turkey.  In 1995, Turkey signed a customs union with the European Union for products other than agricultural products and services. Since 2018, the EU has been Turkey`s main trading partner, with 50% of its exports and 36% of its imports.  Recently, the high level of the U.S. tax on steel and other products has had a negative impact on the volume of trade between the two countries due to political disputes. Although total trade between the United States and Turkey has increased from $10.8 billion in 2009 to $20.7 billion in 2019, it remains modest relative to its potential. In 2019, President Trump and President Erdogan agreed to increase annual bilateral trade to $100 billion a year. “If you ask me what the United States and Turkey could do to change relations for the better, it would be a free trade agreement – not only that more trade would reach $100 billion, but also to effectively integrate economies through a free trade agreement,” Graham said Wednesday at a conference hosted by the U.S. Economic Council and Turkey. “While Turkish GDP has tripled during this period, the Turkish market could be significantly larger for U.S. exporters than in 2002,” Bryza told TRT World. “Their appeal to Turkey means that they have not been able to find a country to counter China`s dominance in several sectors.
This is a serious problem for the United States. But it will be a different story for Turkey. Our possible replacement by China will benefit us in all areas,” said the professor. Turkey has free trade agreements with 36 countries; However, 11 were repealed after joining the EU. The other 20 free trade agreements are in force with EFTA, Israel, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Palestine, Tunisia, Kosovo, Morocco, Egypt, Albania, Georgia, Montenegro, Serbia, Mauritius, South Korea, Malaysia, Moldova, the Faroe Islands, Singapore and Kosovo. Other free trade agreements signed with Lebanon, Sudan, Qatar, Ghana and Venezuela have not yet been ratified. Turkey has also updated and deepened the scope of its existing free trade agreements with EFTA, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. Negotiations on the same thing are ongoing with Georgia and Malaysia. Washington and Ankara have suffered several hard points when navigating within today`s alliance. The history of its rocky relations dates back to the 1950s, when Turkey joined NATO and was